Contribution à l'analyse de la dynamique des écritures anciennes pour l'aide à l'expertise paléographique

Abstract : My thesis work is part of the ANR GRAPHEM Project (Grapheme based Retrieval andAnalysis for Expertise paleographic Manuscripts of Middle Age). It represents a methodologicalcontribution applicable to the automatic analysis of ancient writings to assist the experts inpaleography in the delicate work of the studying and deciphering the writing.The main objective is to contribute to an instrumentation of the corpus of medievalmanuscripts held by “Institut de Recherche en Histoire de Textes” (IRHT-Paris), by helping thepaleographers specialized in this field in their work of understanding the evolution of forms inthe writing, with the establishment of effective methods to access the contents of manuscriptsbased on a fine analysis of the forms described in the form of small fragments (graphemes). Inmy PhD work, I chose to study the dynamic of the most basic element of the writing called theductus and which according to the paleographers, brings a lot of information on the style ofwriting and the era of the elaboration of the manuscript.My major contribution is situated at two levels: a first step of preprocessing of severelydegraded images to ensure an optimal decomposition of the forms into graphemes containingthe ductus information. For this decomposition step of manuscripts, we have proceeded to theestablishment of a complete methodology for the tracings of strokes by the extraction of theskeleton obtained from the contrast enhancement and the diffusion of the gradient procedures.The complete tracking of the strokes was obtained from the application of fundamentalexecution rules of the strokes taught to the scribes of the Middle Ages. It is related to thedynamic information of the formation of strokes focusing essentially on indications of theprivileged directions.In a second step, we have tried to characterize the graphemes by visual shape descriptorsunderstandable by both the computer scientists and the paleographers and thus unsuring themost complete possible representation of the wrting from a geometrical and morphological pointof view. From this characterization, we have have proposed a clustering approach insuring agrouping of graphemes into homogeneous classes by using a non-supervised classificationalgorithm based on the graph coloring. The result of the clustering of graphemes led to theformation of a codebook characterizing in an individual and discriminating way each processedmanuscript. We have also studied the discriminating power of the descriptors in order to obtaina better representation of a manuscript into a codebook. This study was done by exploiting thegenetic algorithms by their ability to produce a good feature selection.The set of the contributions was tested from a CBIR application on three databases ofmanuscripts including two medieval databases (manuscripts from the Oxford and IRHTdatabases), and database of containing contemporary manuscripts used in the writersidentification contest of ICDAR 2011. The exploitation of our description and classificationmethod was applied on a cotemporary database in order to position our contribution withrespect to other relevant works in the writrings identification domain and study itsgeneralization power to other types of manuscripts. The very encouraging results that weobtained on the medieval and contemporary databases, showed the robustness of our approachto the variations of the shapes and styles and its resolutely generalized character to all types ofhandwritten documents.
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Hani Daher. Contribution à l'analyse de la dynamique des écritures anciennes pour l'aide à l'expertise paléographique. Autre [cs.OH]. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05S017⟩. ⟨tel-00834687⟩

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