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La décroissance bêta des produits de fission pour la non-prolifération et la puissance résiduelle des réacteurs nucléaires

Abstract : Today, nuclear energy represents a non-negligible part of the global energy market, most likely a rolling wheel to grow in the coming decades. Reactors of the future must face the criteria including additional economic but also safety, non-proliferation, optimized fuel management and responsible management of nuclear waste. In the framework of this thesis, studies on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are discussed in the context of research and development of a new potential tool for monitoring nuclear reactors, the detection of reactor antineutrinos, because the properties of these particles may be of interest for the International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA), in charge of the verification of the compliance by States with their safeguards obligations as well as on matters relating to international peace and security. The IAEA encouraged its member states to carry on a feasibility study. A first study of non-proliferation is performed with a simulation, using a proliferating scenario with a CANDU reactor and the associated antineutrinos emission. We derive a prediction of the sensitivity of an antineutrino detector of modest size for the purpose of the diversion of a significant amount of plutonium. A second study was realized as part of the Nucifer project, an antineutrino detector placed nearby the OSIRIS research reactor. The Nucifer antineutrino detector is dedicated to non-proliferation with an optimized efficiency, designed to be a demonstrator for the IAEA. The simulation of the OSIRIS reactor is developed here for calculating the emission of antineutrinos which will be compared with the data measured by the detector and also for characterizing the level of background noises emitted by the reactor detected in Nucifer. In general, the reactor antineutrinos are emitted during radioactive decay of fission products. These radioactive decays are also the cause of the decay heat emitted after the shutdown of a nuclear reactor of which the estimation is an issue of nuclear safety. In this thesis, we present an experimental work which aims to measure the properties of beta decay of fission products important to the non-proliferation and reactor decay heat. First steps using the technique of Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (TAGS) were carried on at the radioactive beam facility of the University of Jyvaskyla. We will present the technique used, the experimental setup and part of the analysis of this experiment.
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van Minh Bui. La décroissance bêta des produits de fission pour la non-prolifération et la puissance résiduelle des réacteurs nucléaires. Physique Nucléaire Théorique [nucl-th]. Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012EMNA0004⟩. ⟨tel-00834225⟩



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