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Les métaux lourds dans les écosystèmes anthropisés : une pression favorisant la sélection de pathogènes opportunistes résistants à des antibiotiques ?

Abstract : Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, two major opportunistic pathogens, could acquire antibiotic resistance in the environment under heavy metal pressure that co-selects both resistances. We first investigated the distribution and abundance of these species in a wide range of soils of different geographical origin (France and Africa) and evaluated the influence of human activities that may expose soils to metallic elements on this distribution. While the presence of P. aeruginosa is rather sporadic and could be linked to exogenous intake, S. maltophilia is present in all studied soils, that suggests its endemicity. Evaluating resistance capacities of strains isolated from these soils also showed differences between the two species. Environmental strains of P. aeruginosa are mostly characterized by a wild type phenotype, whereas those of S. maltophilia present a wide diversity of phenotypes depending on the site, sometimes similar to those of clinical strains. This diversity could be attributed to a deep adaptation to the very different environmental conditions encountered in the original niche but it is difficult to attribute specifically to metals a role in coselection of resistance. The study conducted on the bacterial community present in a contaminated soil has also highlighted a high proportion of bacteria resistant to different antibiotics represented by species qualified as opportunistic pathogens and the presence of the gene blaIMP, enabling resistance to imipenem, used in the hospital to treat infections due to multidrug-resistant clones.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00834182, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 315723

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Amélie Deredjian. Les métaux lourds dans les écosystèmes anthropisés : une pression favorisant la sélection de pathogènes opportunistes résistants à des antibiotiques ?. Sciences agricoles. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010LYO10347⟩. ⟨tel-00834182⟩

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