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Déposition et réenvol de spores fongiques : contribution à la compréhension du risque nosocomial aérotransmis

Abstract : Fungal spores are a leading cause of lethal nosocomial infections affecting immunocompromised patients, and can be transmitted through the air. As such, we have studied the deposition and re-entrainment of "Aspergillus" fungal spores, which are responsible for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, a severe disease with a high mortality rate among immunocompromised populations.In our studies two methods of fungal spore aerosolization are used; standard nebulization, and dry blowing using a homemade device. This enabled us to measure the spore settling velocity and to assess the efficiency of fungicide surface treatments using a newly developed test under realistic conditions. These tests have allowed us to quantify different surface treatment efficiencies and established their persistence.An experimental set-up has also been developed to expose spores deposited on a surface to a tangential flow, and to observe and record their removal ( http://tinyurl.com/bla9ynz ). These studies have lead to theoretical criteria for spore detachment. Furthermore, computational fluid dynamic simulations around ideal spherical particles exposed to a tangential flow were used to determine critical parameters needed to estimate particle detachment.Lastly, we have applied our findings to nosocomial infection concerns in the hospital environment and discovered that electronic fans are a pathogen reservoir and potential cross-contamination source. Systematic testing together with random sampling in hospital wards has revealed a new and important contamination risk.
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Amine Metahni. Déposition et réenvol de spores fongiques : contribution à la compréhension du risque nosocomial aérotransmis. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Ecole normale supérieure de lyon - ENS LYON, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ENSL0795⟩. ⟨tel-00833993⟩

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