Contamination chimique de matrices apicoles au sein de ruchers appartenant à des structures paysagères différentes

Abstract : Since the middle of the twentieth century, industrialization, growing urbanization, transports and agricultural practices let to an ecosystem overall contamination and to profound modifications in landscape structure and composition. Those major changes cause physiological and behavioral damages on organisms and have adverse effects on biodiversity. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) is in the central point of this problematic: 1/ bees colonies are recently dramatically declining both in Europe and USA, and 2/ bees are recognized as appropriate sentinels to assess the environmental contamination due to their physiological and biological characteristics. In this context, honeybees, honey and pollen sampled from West France, were analyzed to monitor their contamination and the presence in the environment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, lead, pesticides and veterinary drugs. Samples were collected in eighteen apiaries from different landscape context (urban, rural-grassland, rural-cultivated and island) during four periods (spring, early summer, middle summer, early autumn) over 2008 and 2009. Toxicological analysis results show different sensitiveness according to the environmental pollutant, the studied matrix, the period and the landscape context. Despite such differences, most often specific to each apiary, our study shows an overall contamination of beehive matrices in all landscapes and during all periods. Even if the measured concentrations are generally low, this xenobiotic pressure is added to, even increases, the effect of many other environmental stressors which threaten the survival of bees in general.
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Olivier Lambert. Contamination chimique de matrices apicoles au sein de ruchers appartenant à des structures paysagères différentes. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF22302⟩. ⟨tel-00833765⟩

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