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Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel

Abstract : Ou study focuses on the effects of phase transformations on crack propagation. We want to understand the changes of fracture toughness during welding. In this work, fracture toughness is expressed by J-integral. There are many experimental methods to obtain the critical toughness JIC but they are impractical for our investigation during phase transformation. That is the reason why we have proposed a method coupling mechanical tests, digital image correlation and finite element simulation. The fracture tests are implemented on pre-cracked single edge notched plate sample which is easy for machining and heat conduct during phase transformation. The tests are conducted at different temperatures until rupture. Digital image correlation gives us the displacement information on every sample. Each test is then simulated by finite element where the fracture toughness is evaluated by the method G-Theta at the crack propagation starting moment found by potential drop method and digital image correlation technical. Two materials have been studied, 15Cr-5Ni martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel and 16MND5 ferritic low carbon steel. For these two materials, different test temperatures were chosen before, during and after phase transformation for testing and failure characterization of the mechanical behavior. Investigation result shows that metallurgical phase transformation has an influence on fracture toughness and further crack propagation. For 15-5PH, the result of J1C shows that the as received 15-5PH has higher fracture toughness than the one at 200°C. The toughness is also higher than the original material after one cycle heat treatment probably due to some residual austenite. Meanwhile, pure austenite 15-5PH at 200°C has higher fracture toughness than pure martensitic 15-5PH at 200°C. For 16MND5, the result also proves that the phase transformation affects fracture toughness. The as received material has bigger J1C than the situation where it was heated to 600°C. On the other hand, the material at 600°C just before isothermal bainite transformation after the austenitization during cooling process also has higher fracture toughness than the one at 600°C before austenitization. These two conclusions are consistent well with the result of 15-5PH. But the final situation of 16MND5 after one cycle heat treatment has a slightly smaller J1C than the receiving situation. It means that one cycle heat treatment hasn't an significant influence on 16MND5fracture toughness. Conclusions show that one should pay attention to the heating period before austenitization of the substrate material when people do the welding as the higher temperature will bring the lower fracture toughness during this process. While during cooling period, the fracture toughness doesn't change a lot during, before or after the cooling induced phase transformation. Even for 15-5PH, it has a better fracture toughness after the martensite transformation than before.
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Jikai Liu. Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel. Other. INSA de Lyon, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012ISAL0120⟩. ⟨tel-00833206⟩

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