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Nanocomposites et effet de dimensionnalité pour le stockage de l'énergie

Abstract : For energy storage applications, fossils energies are difficult to compete. By storing energy in capacitors, one can get a huge electric power. However the density of energy in a capacitor is too weak to be interesting in energy storage application. The present thesis aims to understand the well known core-shell system in ferroelectric nano-ceramics and the influence of the geometry of the grain in order to determine and optimize the density of energy in this kind of dielectric, going toward an ultra-capacitor of ceramics. We have first developed an effective-medium core-shell model. By introducing this model in the phenomenological Landau Free energy of several ferroelectrics, we can get quantitative information about of density of energy in these materials. Our calculation for common ferroelectrics has shown that the density of energy remains too weak to become interesting. However, the density of energy can be optimized by using nano-disks or nano-rods in a structured ceramic. Our model agrees well with experimental results, even with extrinsic phenomena like the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation. To go further, we have modeled the BaTiO3 core-shell system using an effective Hamiltonian. The model shows that a new order parameter is observed in the core-shell system namely the toroidal moment. This order affects the dielectrics behavior of coated dots, and for important coating can lead to significant differences with Landau predictions. Moreover, by introducing the toroidal moment in Landau formalism, we can predict the disappearance of the orthorhombic phase in BaTiO3.The synthesis of homogenized cubic BaTiO3 particles, allowed us to make experimental measurement. The combination of RX, Dielectric and Raman measurements lead to a phase diagram for BaTiO3 that can be explain by the presence of a toroidal moment.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 10, 2013 - 3:37:11 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00832356, version 1


Mickaël Anoufa. Nanocomposites et effet de dimensionnalité pour le stockage de l'énergie. Autre. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ECAP0053⟩. ⟨tel-00832356⟩



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