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Comportement thermique des défauts lacunaires induits par l’hélium et les gaz de fission dans le dioxyde d’uranium

Abstract : In the new fourth generation nuclear plants, as in the old ones, uranium dioxide must operate in hostile environments of temperature and irradiation with the presence of fission products (FP) and alpha particles (α). Operation in these extreme conditions will induce atoms displacements and degrade the thermal and mechanical properties of UO2 fuel. Understanding the behavior of induced vacancy defects, FP and helium is crucial to predict the uranium dioxide behavior in the future nuclear reactors. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the study of vacancy defects induced by krypton and iodine implantation (a few MeV) in the UO2 polycrystalline and of their evolution under annealing. Analysis by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has highlighted the creation of Schottky defects VU-2VO in the case of iodine implantations and formation of vacancy clusters containing the gas for krypton implantation. The temperature evolution of these defects depends on the implantation parameters (nature of the ion energy, fluence). This study showed the important roles that can play vacancy defects and the presence of fission gases in the evolution of UO2 material. Then we were interested in the study of the helium behavior in UO2 its location and migration, agglomeration and interaction with vacancy defects by using PAS and ion beam analysis (NRA/C and RBS/C). The NRA/C and RBS/C characterizations showed a localization of a large helium fraction in the octahedral interstitial sites of the UO2 matrix. The helium location in these sites remains stable for T <600°C, changing slightly between 600 and 700°C and becomes random at 800°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy reveals three stages of vacancy defects evolution : The recombination with oxygen interstitial migration, defects agglomeration between 600 and 800°C and their dissociation and elimination when the temperature increases. These results suggest that the He transport is assisted by the vacancy defects.
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Tayeb Belhabib. Comportement thermique des défauts lacunaires induits par l’hélium et les gaz de fission dans le dioxyde d’uranium. Autre. Université d'Orléans, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ORLE2071⟩. ⟨tel-00831705⟩

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