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Étude paramétrique du procédé de dessalement de l’eau de mer par congélation sur paroi froide

Abstract : An experimental study on the feasibility of sea water desalination by indirect freezing is presented. The whole process of desalination involves a freezing step, followed by a purification of the ice layer by sweating. Crystallization is led from quiescent solution or from agitated solution by air bubbling. The key operating parameters are the cooling rate, and solution salinity. Their effect on ice purity has been quantified in the static and agitated modes. The experimental setup enables as well the control of temperature gradient through the solution when the freezing step is conducted in the static mode. In the absence of temperature gradient and consequently the absence of convection currents, the ice layers formed are very contaminated in salts. The results combining crystallization and sweating show that in all cases, we can obtain drinking water, but with high yield and reduced process time when the crystallization is led in agitated mode. The optimal operating conditions are presented. The modelling of mass and heat transfers in the two phases in the diffusional and convective regimes has enabled the interpretation of the influence of operating parameters of crystallizations operated without agitation. At last, the economic evaluation of the whole desalination process, based on experimental operating points, indicates that energetic consumption of a small scale unit maybe low when using an ideal refrigerating machine which works between the sweating and the crystallization unities.
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Youssef Mandri. Étude paramétrique du procédé de dessalement de l’eau de mer par congélation sur paroi froide. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10279⟩. ⟨tel-00831277⟩

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