Marqueurs moléculaires prédictifs de réponse aux thérapies ciblées dans les cancers digestifs

Abstract : Especially in CRC, it is important to identify molecular targeted therapies biomarkers. First, additional markers of resistance to KRAS mutations could predict resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). In our first study, in a series of 42 patients with advanced CRC treated with cetuximab/panitumumab, for whom KRAS status was previously determined, we retrospectively analyzed the intratumor expression of EGFR downstream signaling phosphoproteins of the RAS/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways (pERK1/2, pMEK1, pAKT, pP70S6K and pGSK3beta) using Bio-Plex phosphoprotein array. The expression of all the phosphoproteins was higher in KRAS mutated tumors than in WT tumors. The expression of pP70S6K was lower in responders than in nonresponder patients. In multivariate analysis, PFS was shorter for patients with high pMEK1 or pP70S6K expression, independently of KRAS status, as OS for patients with high pP70S6K expression. Our results suggest the importance of EGFR downstream signaling phosphoproteins expression in addition to KRAS status to define the subgroup of patients who will not benefit from anti-EGFR therapy. We hypothesized that circulating plasma DNA (cpDNA) in advanced cancer patients is largely derived from tumor, and can be utilized for tumor mutation sequencing when repeat biopsy is not feasible. In our second study, we utilized the Sequenom MassArray System and OncoCarta panel for somatic mutation profiling. Matched samples, acquired from the same patient but at different time points were evaluated; these comprised formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tumor tissue (primary and/or metastatic) and cpDNA. The feasibility, sensitivity, and specificity of this high-throughput, multiplex mutation detection approach was tested utilizing specimens acquired from 105 patients with solid tumors referred for participation in Phase I trials of molecularly targeted drugs. The median cpDNA concentration was 17 ng/ml (range: 0.5-1600); this was 3-fold higher than in healthy volunteers. In multivariate analyses, cpDNA concentration, albumin, and performance status remained independent predictors of OS. We also observed high detection concordance for critical "hot-spot" mutations (70% for KRAS, 100% for BRAF) in matched cpDNA and archival tumor tissue. This multiplex sequencing assay can be utilized to detectsomatic mutations from plasma in advanced cancer patients, when safe repeat tumor biopsy is not feasible and genomic analysis of archival tumor is deemed insufficient. Our work did show the importance to search for molecular markers to predict response to targeted therapies, both in tumor tissu (phosphoproteins) and in blood (cpDNA).
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Géraldine Perkins. Marqueurs moléculaires prédictifs de réponse aux thérapies ciblées dans les cancers digestifs. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P656⟩. ⟨tel-00829655⟩

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