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Identification des bases génétiques des myopathies à multi-minicores avec ou sans cardiomyopathie

Abstract : While the pathophysiological bases of many muscular diseases are nowadays well known, congenital core myopathies (CMs) remain poorly understood. CMs are genetic diseases which generally present at birth with delayed motor development, muscle weakness, and sometimes fatal respiratory or cardiological complications. Mutations in RYR1, SEPN1, ACTA1, TTN and MEGF10 have been associated with various CMs, yet for about 50% of CM cases the responsible gene has not been identified. The objective of my thesis was to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms of new forms of CM through the identification of new genes or new mutations in known genes. This thesis had an international dimension as manifested by a UPMC (France) and UdeM (Québec) joint direction. I developed two complementary axes of research. First, I studied 21 informative families with a recessive CM with scoliosis and respiratory failure, for which I combined positional cloning and candidate gene studies, using various tools from genotyping to next generation sequencing (NGS). The second part of this work consisted on the analysis of 24 families with recessive CM affecting both cardiac and skeletal muscles. Their phenotype was similar to that previously observed in cases with deletions in the last 6 exons of the giant gene TTN. Thus we applied a candidate gene strategy through direct Sanger sequencing coupled with NGS for the analysis of this second cohort. During my PhD work I identified the molecular defect in 8 out of the 45 families included (18%), which led to the identification and characterization of 3 novel medical entities, including two new CMs due to novel defects of TTN. These results served to identify new titin protein interactions, and participate in the definition of TTN defects as a major cause of both cardiac and skeletal muscle conditions. A third new form of CM is due to mutations of a poorly-known transcriptional coactivator whose role in striated muscle physiology was unknown and which had never been associated to a human condition. Globally, these results unveiled a novel important protein and pathway in muscle pathophysiology, have direct health benefits (molecular diagnosis) and open the way for therapeutic investigations
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Claire Chauveau. Identification des bases génétiques des myopathies à multi-minicores avec ou sans cardiomyopathie. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PAO66570⟩. ⟨tel-00828297⟩

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