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Propriétés thermiques et électriques de composites à base de nanotubes de carbone et application à la détection de gaz

Abstract : In the recent decades, nanomaterials arouse a growing interest both in their fundamental studies and in their applications. Among these new materials, carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention within the scientific community because of their remarkable physical properties.The work presented in this thesis, involve the preparation and characterization of solid composites based on carbon nanotubes. A solid matrix containing potassium bromide (KBr) and carbon nanotubes, single and multiwalled (SWNT, MWNT) was chosen. The study of these composites involves two aspects: initially, the effect of the loading fraction and the nature of carbon nanotubes on the electrical and thermal properties were investigated. The study of thermal properties was carried out by a photothermal technique, the photoacoustic, which offers great advantages for this type of composites. The evolution of thermal properties according to the loading fraction of nanotubes showed an atypical behavior, an increase followed by a decrease, with a maximum around 2% of nanotubes loading fraction. A physical model describing this evolution has been proposed. Regarding the electrical properties, this study has highlighted the phenomenon of percolation and allowed the determination of the percolation threshold. In a second step, the study focused on the influence of surrounding gas on the thermal and electrical properties, and the possible use of these composites as gas sensors. The thermal characterization with ethanol did not reveal a significant change in thermal properties of composites. However, the electrical characterization showed a good response to this gas. The evolution of the sensitivity depending on the nanotubes loading fraction in the composites showed an increase for loads below 4% and a stabilization beyond this value. The influence of other gases such as nitrogen dioxide and toluene were also studied. The electrical response to nitrogen dioxide showed a strong interaction of the gas with composites. The response to toluene did not show any influence of this gas on the electrical properties of SWNT-based composites, however, in the case of MWNT-based composite, an electrical response similar to that of ethanol was observed.
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Aoumeur Boulerouah. Propriétés thermiques et électriques de composites à base de nanotubes de carbone et application à la détection de gaz. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011DUNK0313⟩. ⟨tel-00827011⟩

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