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Etude du rôle du récepteur nucléaire CAR, Constitutive Androstane Receptor, dans le métabolisme des lipides et la susceptibilité à l'athérosclérose

Abstract : The Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) belongs to the subfamily of nuclear receptors NR1. Initially described as an orphan receptor, CAR is activated by a large number of exogenous molecules and acts as a xenosensor. The activation of CAR by these ligands stimulates transcription of phase I, II and III enzymes required for the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics. Furthermore CAR is also involved in the metabolism of endogenous molecules such as bile acids, bilirubin or thyroid hormones. CAR has recently been the subject of numerous independent studies that have highlighted his involvement in major metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis and lipoprotein metabolism, making CAR as well as others NR1 nuclear receptors potential targets for the study and the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of our work was to determine the impact of a chronic CAR activation on reverse cholesterol transport, lipoprotein metabolism and susceptibility to atherosclerosis in a context of dietary cholesterol overload. In dyslipidemic mice deficient for the low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr-/-) or for apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-), pharmalogical activation of CAR by its specific agonist TCPOBOP (3,3',5,5'-Tetrachloro-1, 4-bis (pyridyloxy) benzene) 1) reduces lipogenesis through the induction of Insig1 and the repression of the transcription factor Srebp1c (meaning..) and its target genes. This results in a decrease in plasma triglyceride levels associated with a reduced hepatic triglycerides concentration and a decreased secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, 2) stimulates the conversion and fecal cholesterol elimination as bile acids and consequently the last step of reverse cholesterol transport, 3) in Ldlr-/- mice, CAR activation decreases LDL-cholesterol probably through the stimulation of hepatic expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor.Reduction in the atherogenicity of the lipoprotein profile and increase of reverse cholesterol transport lead to a reduction in the size of atherosclerotic lesions in heart valves and aorta in Ldlr-/- mice. Reduction of aortic lesions in aortic arches only was also observed in apoE-/- mice. The present work as well as recent studies suggests that CAR is as central player in lipid metabolism. CAR appears therefore to be a new potential target for the study and the treatment of metabolic disorders like diabetes, obesity, fatty liver and atherosclerosis
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Anne-Laure Sberna. Etude du rôle du récepteur nucléaire CAR, Constitutive Androstane Receptor, dans le métabolisme des lipides et la susceptibilité à l'athérosclérose. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bourgogne, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011DIJOS094⟩. ⟨tel-00825474⟩

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