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Analyse moléculaire des types cellulaires impliqués dans l'anévrysme de l'aorte abdominale

Abstract : Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease consisting in a dilatation of the abdominalaorta. As AAA is asymptomatic, it is important to identify new biomarkers in order to improve theearly care management of patients.The aim of this work was to study specifically the cell types involved in the development of AAA.After collection of an AAA samples bank, we located these cell types among the tissue andhighlighted 3 interesting areas: the intraluminal thrombus contained neutrophils, T lymphocytes,mast cells and M2 macrophages. M1 macrophages were located in the adventitia along with Blymphocytes and other mast cells. The media contained smooth muscle cells (SMC) with a phenotypevarying from a healthy state, to an aneurysmal one and to an apoptotic one.These results suggest a different role of the two subtypes of macrophages and an evolution ofSMCs during AAA. Thus, we chose to isolate these subtypes from the aneurysmal tissue with lasermicrodissection in order to study the proteins differentially expressed between them that could bepotential biomarkers. We showed that the plasmatic increase in peroxiredoxin-1 levels in AAApatients came from pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and the increase in ADAMTS5 levels camefrom aneurysmal elongated SMCs.We then compared the whole proteome of M1 and M2 macrophages in order to elucidate theirrole in AAA and identify new biomarkers. Five differentially expressed proteins were identified,implicated in phagocytosis and stress response.The study of the different cell types involved in AAA could enable us a better understanding of itsmechanisms and allow the identification of new potential biomarkers for this pathology
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00825204
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 23, 2013 - 11:12:13 AM
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Ludovic Boytard. Analyse moléculaire des types cellulaires impliqués dans l'anévrysme de l'aorte abdominale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LIL2S035⟩. ⟨tel-00825204⟩

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