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Elastographie-IRM pour le diagnostic et la caractérisation des lésions du sein

Abstract : MR-elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive functional Imaging technique using tissue mechanical visco-elastic properties to evaluate tissue stifness. MRE is different from elasticity Imaging in ultrasound, as it is possible to evaluate tumour viscosity. Combining viscosity and elasticity may improve MRI accuracy, in comparison with classical morphological and kinetics criteria. Only very few studies are focused on breast MRE, because of low availability of dedicated breast coils with MRE devices. Firstly, we developed and optimized a breast MRE sequence on a population of 10 volunteers. This sequence is based on a Spin Echo EPI-MRE 3D, and it was possible to acquire 50 slices on one breast in 10 minutes, which is applicable in a clinical routine in breast MRI. Secondly, a multi-frequency approach 37,5 Hz, 75 Hz and 112,5 Hz has been evaluated on the last three volunteers, then transferred to our patient’s population. A continous diffusion of waves within the breast was possible with this multifrequency approach sequence. 50 patients presenting undetermined or suspicious breast lesions (37 cancers, 13 benign lesions) were included in this study and examined with a standard breast MRI and MRE sequence. Some patients were also examined with shear-wave ultrasound elastography (ARFI mode, Siemens ®). Morphological, kinetic and visco-elastic MR parameters were correlated to pathology. We demonstrated that MR visco-elastic properties were strongly correlated with Bi-RADS ACR malignancy score of a breast lesion and with malignant and benign status. The best parameter was Gd (dynamic modulus), which corresponded to lesion stiffness. Gd was lower in case of BI-RADS 5 lesions. Gl parameter (Loss modulus) was higher in malignant lesions in comparison with benign lesions, with viscosity level statistically higher in malignant lesions. The best criterion was the ratio y (Gl/Gd), which was significantly higher in malignant lesions in comparison with benign lesions; ratio y was statistically an independent factor. In practice, addition of a MRE sequence to a standard breast MRI improved significantly breast MRI Sensitity (78 to 91 %) without reduction in specificity; Sp was anyway initially high in our study. Nevertheless, we didn’t demonstrate a statistical correlation with fibrosis, vascular grading or necrosis with MRE parameters, to explain visco-elastic properties of breast tumours. In conclusion, MR-elastography may be useful to improve breast MRI accuracy. In future studies, MRE sequence may be optimized to allow a bilateral acquisition on both breasts, which would be useful in clinical practice. Future works could include higher number of patients to confirm our results.
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Corinne Balleyguier. Elastographie-IRM pour le diagnostic et la caractérisation des lésions du sein. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112047⟩. ⟨tel-00824882⟩

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