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Évaluation des flux sédimentaires sur le littoral du Nord-Pas de Calais : vers une meilleure compréhension de la morphodynamique des plages macrotidales

Abstract : Our knowledge and understanding of the sediment dynamics of sandy macrotidal beaches is still limited by a lack of data from these macrotidal environments. This limitation is due to the relatively small proportion of macrotidal coasts in the world. Three sandy beaches on the coast of Northern France were chosen to conduct this study. Three scientific approaches were used: 1) characterization of tidal and waves energy conditions using wave and current meters deployed on the foreshore; 2) beach morphology survey and 3) estimation of longshore (FL) and cross-shore (FC) sediment transport using streamer traps similar to those designed by Kraus (1987). Sand transport was measured about 1 m water, next to the breaker zone and either in the shoaling zone or in the surf zone; under low to moderate waves energy conditions (Hs < 1 m). In spite of a low longshore variability in sediment transport due to a high degree of hydrodynamic uniformity along the shore, runnel drainage can locally increase sediment transport rates. Cross-shore distribution appeared to be more variable as sediment transport decreased from the lower to the upper part of the beach. Onshore, offshore and longshore sediment transport measured simultaneously showed that under various energetic conditions, FC appeared to be generally higher than FL. Although net littoral drift is directed towards the Belgian coast, these results suggest that significant volumes of sand move across the intertidal zone. These significant volumes of sand most likely have a strong influence on the morphodynamics of the beach. Daily topographical survey has shown little morphological variations while sediment transport rates appeared very variable and very significant, especially during the highest wave energy conditions. Sediment transport measurements across the foreshore highlight the important role played by inter-bar troughs in the morphodynamics of macrotidal beaches. Higher bed roughness in these depressions is responsible for an increase in sediment resuspension through the water column. Suspended transport is therefore favoured in troughs and hinders the cross-shore sediment transport, which is responsible for the bar migration across the intertidal zone. Morphological changes are dependent of the time residence of the hydrodynamic zones, but the morphodynamics of the intertidal bars appear to be strongly controlled by the amplitude of the incident waves. FL were also compared with calculated data computed using from numerical and morphodynamic model. Although computed transport rates are generally higher than in situ measurements, it appears that some formulae provide better estimate of FL, especially in the shoaling zone
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Adrien Cartier. Évaluation des flux sédimentaires sur le littoral du Nord-Pas de Calais : vers une meilleure compréhension de la morphodynamique des plages macrotidales. Sciences de la Terre. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011DUNK0310⟩. ⟨tel-00821126⟩

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