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Etudes semi-analytiques des conditions de déclenchement et de saturation des auto-oscillations dans des moteurs thermoacoustiques de géométries diverses

Abstract : Thermoacoustic engines are autonomous oscillators generally made of an acoustic resonator, partially filled with a porous material (stack) submitted to a strong, externally supplied, temperature gradient. When the imposed temperature gradient along the stack becomes larger than a critical value, called the onset threshold, the interaction between the fluid and the solid plates leads to a high-level self-sustained acoustic wave at the frequency of the most unstable mode of the resonator. The purpose of the work presented in this report can be separated into two parts. On the one hand, a theoretical modelling is proposed for the description of thermoacoustic engines, which is derived for standing-wave thermoacoustic systems as well as for travelling-wave systems. On the other hand, an experimental approach is proposed for the characterisation of the thermoacoustic core (corresponding to the stack and the thermal buffer tube), allowing to describe the behaviour of thermoacoustic systems without making any assumptions concerning the shape of the temperature profile or the stack geometry. An analytical network modelling of thermoacoustic engines is proposed for the calculation of the threshold conditions and the amplification rate of the acoustic wave. The transfer matrices, combined with appropriate boundary conditions, lead to the derivation of the characteristic equation of the system. The solution of this equation is a complex angular frequency whose imaginary part represents the thermoacoustic amplification coefficient.The experimental part of this work consists in measuring the transfer matrix of the thermoacoustic core. This is realized for several heat supply conditions, by means of a four-microphones method. First, these experimental results are used for the prediction of onset conditions of standard thermoacoustic engines equipped with the thermoacoustic core. The results obtained with this method are very close to the experimental observations, which allow to judge of the consistency of the experimental apparatus and of the model describing the stability conditions. Second, the experimental datas are used in order to fit an analytical model describing the coupled mechanisms of acoustic propagation and heat transfers in the thermoacoustic core : this allows to estimate the values of acoustic and thermal parameters using an inverse method.Beyond the onset threshold, the amplification and saturation of the wave essentially result from the thermoacoustic heat flux and the convection coming from the generation of a mass flow (acoustic streaming). Both these mechanisms are generally responsible of complicated dynamics for the transient acoustic pressure amplitude. The last part of this work is dedicated to the introduction of both these effects in the previously described model, which leads to the calculation of the transient regime. A simplified modelling of Rayleigh streaming enhanced heat transfers is proposed, which allows to show that this effect may play an important role in the transient dynamics observed in an experimental quarter-wavelength thermoacoustic engine.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 7, 2013 - 3:02:08 PM
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Matthieu Guédra. Etudes semi-analytiques des conditions de déclenchement et de saturation des auto-oscillations dans des moteurs thermoacoustiques de géométries diverses. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université du Maine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LEMA1025⟩. ⟨tel-00821108⟩



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