Développement de glycomimétiques antagonistes du récepteur lectine de type C, DC-SIGN : une nouvelle stratégie préventive anti-HIV

Abstract : An amazing defense system, the immunity, protects most of the living organisms from harmful pathogens. The innate and acquired immunity components work together to provide efficient protection of humans as well as all other jawed vertebrates. Dendritic cells, the component of the innate immunity, routinely survey the peripheral tissues, capture and process the invading pathogens, and finally, present the antigens to the T cells to boost the pathogen specific adaptive immune responses. These cells recognize the foreign organisms with the help of multiple pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which specifically bind molecules on the pathogen surfaces, so-called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Among PRRs, the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have an important role in pathogen recognition and capturing. However, one of these CLRs, DC-SIGN, has been shown to be hijacked by many dangerous pathogens, including HIV, to promote their infection. This work aims to develop the antagonists of the C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN, which would be able to block the use of this receptor by pathogens. To achieve that, the strategy of the development of glycomimetic ligands of DC-SIGN and the multivalent presentation of the selected monovalent glycomimics has been employed. The presented studies were accomplished in collaboration with several chemists groups, who have designed and synthesized different glycomimetic compounds as well as different multivalent platforms. The mannose-based, fucose-based and the C-glycosidic compounds were explored as monovalent DC-SIGN ligands, and multivalent platforms with different valence as well as ligand presentation in space were investigated. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the activity of the compounds to inhibit DC-SIGN was estimated. Moreover, the compounds were evaluated for their selectivity to DC-SIGN vs langerin, another CLR with a protective role from HIV infection. Some of the compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectrometry studies. The SPR studies of multivalent compounds confirmed the improved activity, but also revealed possible complications Overall, these studies allowed to identify two new monovalent leads and to draw perspectives for their further improvement, and suggested the improvement of multivalent presentation platforms.
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Ieva Sutkeviciute. Développement de glycomimétiques antagonistes du récepteur lectine de type C, DC-SIGN : une nouvelle stratégie préventive anti-HIV. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENV055⟩. ⟨tel-00819832⟩

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