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Theses

Effets des polluants organiques persistants sur le comportement des poissons

Abstract : Because of their long biological half-life and high liposolubility, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chains over a wide range of trophic levels, leading to a potential risk for high trophic level predators including humans. Further, due to their binding with lipids, a demonstrated maternal transfer to eggs exists in fish. In this context, and since field analyses and experimental exposures have established links between PCBs exposure and alterations in physiology and behaviour of contaminated animals, we have examined the effects in both common sole and zebrafish species exposed through diets to two PCBs mixtures at two doses mimicking known environmental contamination levels and congener composition. The highest dose was equivalent to that found in molluscs flesh in the Seine Estuary and the intermediate dose was equivalent to that found in the Loire estuary. Contaminated soles showed a decreased locomotor activity level after 30 days (d) of contamination and altered cryptic abilities after 60 d of contamination. Contaminated zebrafish showed an increased locomotor activity level after 250 d of contamination. The offspring obtained from this contaminated generation of zebrafish showed an increase in swimming activity in larvae which was maintained in adults. In adults, this was associated with a decrease in tank bottom section occupancy and with an increase in the number of zone transition which may be due to a loosening of homebase behaviour and/or a loss of behavioural inhibition. In both cases, behavioural phenotypes observed in PCBs groups can be related to a disruption in locomotion activity towards decreased levels for a placid species like common sole and increased levels for a mobile species like zebrafish.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00818410
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  • HAL Id : tel-00818410, version 1

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Samuel Péan. Effets des polluants organiques persistants sur le comportement des poissons. Sciences agricoles. Université de La Rochelle, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LAROS359⟩. ⟨tel-00818410⟩

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