L'islam au Kazakhstan : les rapports Etats-religion (XVIIIème - XXème siècles)

Abstract : Relations between the state and religion are determining in the history of every country. At Kazakhstan the status of Islam has largely depended on the ruling regime. Islam was brought to Kazakhstan in several waves, starting from the conquest of the country’s south by Arabs. It was legalized by Qarakhanides, the Golden Horde under Khan Özbek and Kazakh clans and was further regularized with Russian colonization starting from XVIII century. Russian Empire, interested in attracting Muslims, has favored their religion by creating a Spiritual assembly at Orenburg. Empress Catherine II (The Great) had sent Tatar mullahs to the Kazakh steppes to establish Moslem institutions (mosques, religious schools, etc). This was aimed at gaining control over the Kazakh population. But reinforcement of Islam has led to rather opposite result and, as a consequence, Empire hardened towards Islam - the numbers of mosques and mullahs were reduced. It seemed to change upon arrival of the Soviets to the region, but only for a limited time, followed by anti-religious declarations of the Soviet Government and repressions at the end of 1920s, aiming to exterminate the influence of Islam once and forever. However during Second World War, under Stalin, Muslin spiritual institutions were once more re-established. They continued to function during the post-war era and collapse of USSR, being in the total support for the latter. Independence of Kazakhstan has provided an opportunity for the citizens to freely express their beliefs, and at the same time it led to the emerging of certain radical movements. From the years of 2000 the Kazakh government revises once again its policy on religion towards restriction. The history repeats itself?
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Talgat Abdrakhmanov. L'islam au Kazakhstan : les rapports Etats-religion (XVIIIème - XXème siècles). Histoire. Université Michel de Montaigne - Bordeaux III, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012BOR30050⟩. ⟨tel-00817205⟩

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