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Etude d'un système combiné de ventilation et de chauffage au bois dans les bâtiments à basse consommation d'énergie

Abstract : This work is devoted to the study and development of an innovative wood-based air-heating system for energy-efficient dwellings, which are expected to become the building reference in France from 2015 onwards. As these kinds of homes are highly insulated and particularly airtight, heating requirements are very low and may be covered by a renewable energy source, such as wood energy. In addition, efficient ventilation is absolutely required to ensure indoor air quality and may even sometimes be use as the only way to provide heat into the various rooms of the house. In this context, the system presented in this study aims to combine advantages of a low power wood-burning appliance, as a wood-pellet stove, and those of a mechanical ventilation heat-recovery unit, thanks to a heat exchanger integrated into the chimney of the pellet stove and connected to the ventilation air supply network. Developed in partnership with POUJOULAT, a metallic chimneys manufacturer, this new heat exchanger recovers a part of the heat from flue gases and enables to warm up the fresh air distributed in each living zone of the house, even the most remote of the wood heating device. After defining the best coupling configuration to ensure the proper behaviour of the system, as well as both safety and comfort of the occupants, performances of several heat exchanger prototypes are characterized experimentally. The results from tests in laboratory are then used to guide prototypes development and they highlight the need to work with a room-sealed wood-pellet stove. Moreover, a mathematical model is developed to predict the performances of the latest prototype of triple concentric tube heat exchanger with no insulation at the outer surface. Then, the model validation is obtained following the good agreement between calculated results and those measured during the laboratory tests. The combined system is then installed in two energy-efficient dwellings near Poitiers. Operating temperatures and energy consumptions collected during the first heating season show the good reliability of the combined system, its limitations and its conditions of acceptance by the occupants, whose behaviour is pointed out as a major factor in reducing energy consumptions.
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Pierre Peigné. Etude d'un système combiné de ventilation et de chauffage au bois dans les bâtiments à basse consommation d'énergie. Autre. Université de La Rochelle, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LAROS357⟩. ⟨tel-00816015⟩

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