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Approches variationnelles statistiques spatio-temporelles pour l'analyse quantitative de la perfusion myocardique en IRM

Abstract : Quantitative assessment of moycardium perfusion, i.e. computation of perfusion parameters which are then confronted to normative values, is a key issue for the diagnosis, therapy planning and monitoring of ischemic cardiomyopathies --the leading cause of death in Western countries. Within the last decade, perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (p-MRI) has emerged as a reference modality for reliably assessing myocardial perfusion in a noninvasive and accurate way. In p-MRI acquisitions, short-axis image sequences are captured at multiple slice levels along the long-axis of the heart during the transit of a vascular contrast agent through the cardiac chambers and muscle. Resulting p-MRI exams exhibit high nonlinear contrast variations and complex cardio-thoracic motions. Perfusion assessment is then faced with the complex problems of non rigid registration and segmentation of cardiac structures in p-MRI exams. The objective of this thesis is enabling an automated quantitative computer-aided diagnosis tool for first pass cardiac perfusion MRI, comprising four processing steps: -1.automated cardiac region of interest extraction; -2.non rigid registration of cardio-thoracic motions throughout the whole sequence; -3.cardiac boundaries segmentation; -4.quantification of myocardial perfusion. The answers we give to the various challenges identified in each step are based on a common idea: investigating information related to the kinematics of contrast agent transit in the tissues for discriminating the anatomical structures and driving the alignment process. This latter is the main work of this thesis. Non rigid image registration methods based on the optimization of information measures provide versatile solutions for robustly aligning medical data. Their usual application setting is the alignment of image pairs by statistically matching luminance distributions, handled using marginal and joint probability densities estimated via kernel techniques. Though efficient for joint densities exhibiting well-separated clusters or reducible to simple mixtures, these approaches reach their limits for nonlinear mixtures where pixelwise luminance appears to be a too coarse feature for allowing unambiguous statistical decisions, and for mono-modal with nonlinear variations and multi-modal data. This thesis presents a unified mathematical model for the information-theoretic multi-feature/multi-view non rigid registration, addressing the identified challenges : (i) simultaneous registration of the whole p-MRI exam, using a natural or synthetic atlas generated as a motion-free exam depicting the transit of the vascular contrast agent through cardiac structures and using local contrast enhancement curves as a feature set; (ii) can be easily generalized to richer feature spaces combining radiometric and geometric information. The resulting model is based on novel consistent k-nearest neighbors estimators of information measures in high dimension, for both classical Shannon and generalized Ali-Silvey frameworks. We study their variational optimization by deriving under closed-form their gradient flows over finite and infinite dimensional smooth transform spaces, and by proposing computationally efficient gradient descent schemas. The resulting generic theoretical framework is applied to the groupwise alignment of cardiac p-MRI exams, and its performances, in terms of accuracy and robustness, are evaluated in an experimental qualitative and quantitative protocol
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 17, 2013 - 2:07:14 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00814577, version 1


Sameh Hamrouni-Chtourou. Approches variationnelles statistiques spatio-temporelles pour l'analyse quantitative de la perfusion myocardique en IRM. Economies et finances. Institut National des Télécommunications, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012TELE0024⟩. ⟨tel-00814577⟩



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