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Theses

Modélisation mathématique de la dynamique de diffusion de bactéries résistantes aux antibiotiques : application au pneumocoque

Abstract : The thesis aims at building mathematical models to study the dynamics of pneumococcal strains transmission in the community. The phenomenon of emergence and diffusion of resistant bacteria in populations involve microbial, individual and population scales simultaneously. That makes them complex and difficult to anticipate. In that context, modelling, which allows formalisation and simulation of the different scales, can help in analysing, predicting and understanding better the spread of bacteria. Three main issues are raised. What would be the impact of antibiotic exposure changes on resistances distributions? What would be the effects induced by the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the distribution of strains? Do viral respiratory infections and antibiotic consumption play a role in pneumococcal meningitis infections? Four compartmental models are developed to answer these questions. The results of our simulations reinforce the idea that antibiotic exposure is a major factor in the selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. More precisely, they show that the choices of prescribed drugs and doses at the individual level could have a strong impact on the distributions of resistances in the community. Moreover, our results suggest that respiratory viruses, antibiotic consumption and resistance associated-fitness could explain part of the dynamics of pneumococcal meningitis in the community.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00814070
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 16, 2013 - 2:53:35 PM
Last modification on : Monday, December 14, 2020 - 9:55:29 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, July 17, 2013 - 4:05:15 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00814070, version 1

Citation

Lulla Opatowski. Modélisation mathématique de la dynamique de diffusion de bactéries résistantes aux antibiotiques : application au pneumocoque. Biotechnologies. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009PA066090⟩. ⟨tel-00814070⟩

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