Contributions à l'étude de détection des bandes libres dans le contexte de la radio intelligente.

Abstract : The wireless communications systems continue to grow and has become very essential nowadays. This growth causes an increase in the demand of spectrum resources, which have become more and more scarce. To solve this problem of spectrum scarcity, Joseph Mitola III, in the year 2000, introduced the idea of dynamic spectrum allocation. Mitola defines the term “Cognitive Radio”, which is widely expected to be the next Big Bang in wireless communications [1]. In this work we focus on the problem of spectrum sensing which is the detection of the presence of primary users in licensed spectrum, in the context of cognitive radio. The objective of this work is to propose effective detection methods at low-complexity and/or using short observation time, using minimal a priori information about the signal to be detected. In the first part of this work we deal with the problem of detecting a random signal in noise. Two main methods of detection are used: energy detection or radiometer and cyclostationary detection. In our context, these methods are more complementary than competitive. We propose a hybrid architecture for detecting free bands, which combines the simplicity of the radiometer and the robustness of the cyclostationary detection. Two detection methods are proposed that are based on this same hybrid architecture. Thanks to the adaptive nature of the architecture, the complexity of the detector decreases over time to tend to the one of an energy detector with close performance to the cyclostationary detector or to the performance of a radiometer, depending on the used method and on the working environment. In the second part of this work we exploit the sparse property of the Cyclic Autocorrelation Function (CAF) to propose a new blind estimator based on compressed sensing that estimates the Cyclic Autocorrelation Vector (CAV) which is a particular vector of the CAF for a given lag. It is shown by simulation that this new estimator gives better performances than those obtained with the classical estimator, which is non-blind, under the same conditions and using the same number of samples. Using the new estimator, we propose two blind detectors that require fewer samples than the second order time domain detector of [2] which is based on the classical estimator of the CAF. The first detector uses only the sparse property of the CAV while the second detector exploits the symmetry property of the CAV in addition to its sparse property, resulting in better performances. Both detectors, although they are blind, are more efficient than the non-blind detector of [2] in the case of a small number of samples.
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Ziad Khalaf. Contributions à l'étude de détection des bandes libres dans le contexte de la radio intelligente.. Autre. Supélec, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013SUPL0005⟩. ⟨tel-00812666⟩

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