Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Theses

Contribution des méthodes géophysiques, en particulier du RADAR géologique, à la cartographie des cavités souterraines de la Médina de Béni-Mellal -MAROC

Abstract : This research aims at the contribution of geophysical methods in detecting and mapping underground cavities of the Medina of Beni-Mellal. It is considered as a part of the rehabilitation project of this Medina, It is comes to complete the initiative of the Urban Agency of Beni-Mellal and the local as well as the national authorities. The methodology implemented is the one proposed in the technical guide proposed by Le Laboratoire Central Des Ponts et Chaussées De Nantes (2004). The first chapter raises the problems of cavities, called "Khefs" in relation with the history and geography of the Medina. The second chapter deals with the preliminary stages of study that concern the application of the geophysics. A critical approach of the previous reports and the visits of the geological outcrops and caves have changed the claimed assumptions about the origin and the nature of the cavities. In contrast to what has often been assumed, there can't be any cavity naturally formed and linked to Karstification. In fact these cavities are the result of men digging detritic materials to extract soil needed for building the medina itself. As a result of this wrong exploitation they left behind cavities in forms of rooms and pillars. Besides, these cavities were subject to degradation due to the human activities. The third chapter states the choice of the geophysical methods implemented, and presents the result of three of them. The seismic refraction is not recommended, while the electrical tomography and near-field electromagnetism are. Seven examples of 2D tomography profiles were presented and which clearly showed the presence of expected and resistant anomalies: Their roof is located between 0.50 m and 1.50 m deep and their lateral extension is less than 5 m. Five profiles and two electromagnetic maps demonstrate the ability to map geological variations of the surface and the sensitivity to the vertical contact located between the emptiness and the detritic material. The fourth chapter presents the results obtained with the use of geological radar covering an experimental zone of the Medina. Some specific examples were taken out of 270 profiles that had been recorded with a 400 MHz antenna for all the profiles but 200 MHz antenna is used only for a few ones. To check the outcome, 17 holes were drilled and the result was satisfactory. Seven drillings reached emptiness as it was expected; other two got the hollow at a depth greater than that of the investigation. As it was expected, five holes highlighted geological reflectors whereas two encountered no reflectors. Finally, in only one case the destructive drilling didn't allow the identification of the awaited reflectors. The onset of a study covering the traces and the spectra specially the slippery spectra seems to open promising avenues for the interpretation of radar images with limited subsequent drillings. The fifth chapter is a summary of results and also a response to questions raised by the project managers. A map of all the 200 holes detected in the whole area of Medina by all the techniques was presented. However the presence of such cavities shouldn't hinder any reconstruction or urban renewal of Medina. For each site a specific treatment is proposed and its cost remains lower than that of the construction itself. Proposals were also made for the networks in agreement with the basic principles proposed by competent professionals. Hence, the cavities in Medina move from a status of being an unpredictable threat to an element that could be tamed.
Complete list of metadatas

Cited literature [18 references]  Display  Hide  Download

https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00812038
Contributor : Theses Bupmc <>
Submitted on : Thursday, April 11, 2013 - 3:40:09 PM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 10:55:32 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, July 12, 2013 - 4:07:24 AM

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : tel-00812038, version 1

Citation

Mustapha Filahi. Contribution des méthodes géophysiques, en particulier du RADAR géologique, à la cartographie des cavités souterraines de la Médina de Béni-Mellal -MAROC. Géophysique [physics.geo-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008PA066044⟩. ⟨tel-00812038⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

822

Files downloads

18847