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Cancer bronchique primitif, voies de signalisation intra-cellulaires et modèles précliniques

Abstract : Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) can induce cellular immortalization, proliferation, and resistance to anticancer therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors or chemotherapy. This study assessed the conséquences of inhibiting these two pathways in tumor cells with activation of KRAS, PI3K-AKT, or both. We investigated whether the combination of a novel RAF/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, RAF265, with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, RAD001 (everolimus), could lead to enhanced antitumoral effects in vitro and in vivo. To address this question, we used cell lines with different status regarding KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF mutations, using immunoblotting to evaluate the inhibitors, and MTT and clonogenic assays for effects on cell viability and proliferation. Subcutaneous xenografts were used to assess the activity of the combination in vivo. RAD001 inhibited mTOR downstream signaling in all cell lines, whereas RAF265 inhibited RAF downstream signaling only in BRAF mutant cells. In vitro, addition of RAF265 to RAD001 led to decreased AKT, S6, and Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In vitro and in vivo, RAD001 addition enhanced the antitumoral effect of RAF265 in HCT116 and H460 cells (both KRAS mut, PIK3CA mut); in contrast, the combination of RAF265 and RAD001 yielded no additional activity in A549 and MDAMB231 cells. The combination of RAF and mTOR inhibitors is effective for enhancing antitumoral effects in cells with deregulation of both RAS-RAF and PI3K, possibly through the cross-inhibition of 4E binding protein 1 and S6 protein. We then focus on animal models. Preclinical models of NSCLC require better clinical relevance to study disease mechanisms and innovative therapeutics. We sought to compare and refine bioluminescent orthotopic mouse models of human localized NSCLC. Athymic nude mice underwent subcutaneous injection (group 1-SC, n = 15, control), percutaneous orthotopic injection (group 2-POI, n = 30), surgical orthotopic implantation of subcutaneously grown tumours (group 3-SOI, n = 25), or transpleural orthotopic injection (group 4-TOI, n = 30) of A549-luciferase cells. Bioluminescent in vivo imaging was then performed weekly. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) were searched using Cellsearch® system in SC and TOI models Group 2-POI was associated with unexpected direct pleural spreading of the cellular solution in 53% of the cases, forbidding further evaluation of any localized lung tumour. Group 3-SOI was characterized by high perioperative mortality, initially localized lung tumours, and local evolution. Group 4-TOI was associated with low perioperative mortality, initially localized lung tumours, loco regional extension, and distant metastasis. CTCs were detected in 83% of nude mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic NSCLC tumours. Transpleural orthotopic injection of A549-luc cells in nude mouse lung induces localized tumour, followed by lymphatic extension and specific mortality, and allowed the first time identification of CTCs in a NSCLC mice model.
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Pierre Mordant. Cancer bronchique primitif, voies de signalisation intra-cellulaires et modèles précliniques. Cancer. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA11T092⟩. ⟨tel-00809668⟩

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