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Dispositifs de mesure et d'interprétation de l'activité d'un nerf

Olivier Rossel 1 
1 DEMAR - Artificial movement and gait restoration
LIRMM - Laboratoire d'Informatique de Robotique et de Microélectronique de Montpellier, CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée
Abstract : In the context of sensory or motor deficiencies, some technologic solutions can be proposed in case pharmacology and surgery are inefficient. Neuroprostheses are one of these technologic solutions. It consists in devices interfacing the (peripheral or central) nervous system, either acting on it (functional electric stimulation, neuromodulation...), or recording neuro-signals (automated prosthesis control, closed-loop stimulation...).The work presented in this manuscript focuses on the latter, and more precisely, on recording neuro-signals from peripheral nerves. Today, the only implantable device that can be used for chronic recording on human peripheral nervous system is the tripolar cuff electrode.Unfortunately, it is sensitive to the nerve global activity and exhibits a very low selectivity. More selective devices, like intrafascicular electrodes, exist, but has the drawback to be more traumatizing for the nerve.Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to develop a device associating the selectivity of intrafascicular electrode together with the low invasivity of cuff electrode.We thus started to perform simulations of the extracellular action potential of myelinated axons, putting in evidence a "local phenomenon", already described in some previous publications, and decreasing very quickly with the distance. Then, we have designed and studied a simple neural interface based on the characteristics of this local phenomenon, and specifically sensitive to it.The results have allowed us to propose an extraneural electrode, promising a selectivity index far higher than today's state of the art.Unfortunately, the gain in selectivity leads also to the degradation of signal-to-noise ratio. We have thus studied solutions to reduce noise at the electrode interface, and presented the architecture of a low-noise multi-channel acquisition circuit fitting our requirements.Finally, we have built the artificial model of an axon in order to experimentally validate simulation results, as well as the the local phenomenon characteristics.
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Olivier Rossel. Dispositifs de mesure et d'interprétation de l'activité d'un nerf. Electronique. Université Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00809282⟩

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