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Les partenariats en éducation à la santé à l'école primaire : analyse comparée entre le Québec et la France

Abstract : In Quebec and in France, at school, health is often seen through the filter of health promotion and the large campaigns of Public health relayed by the school health with in particular evaluations of programs and analyses inter organizational (Weiner et al, 1988 ; Jourdan et al, 1998 ; Carlson et al, 2008 et Kreulen et al, 2009). For many years, the official texts (Quebec Education Program (2001) and the common base of the knowledge in France (1998)) invite teachers to tackle health education in a comprehensive and systemic way and include it in the nearest learning. Although, health education makes explicit part of the curriculum, it is hardly a place in school. It does, indeed, not the configuration of a discipline and may involve different field school (Physical Education, Biology, etc). Answering, these injunctions require firstly that Health education is not seen as an empirical notion but more rather as a strong conviction that teachers want to work with pupils and secondly, an opening of the class toward the other class and the school toward the community. For this qualitative and comparative research, we were interested, at first, to spot the nature of the collective actions in health education realized in primary schools in Quebec (n=6) and in France (n=6), secondly, to analyze the types of partnership and finally, in the third time, to put in relation the nature of the health education actions and the type of networks.The frame of analysis of the partnership is the one of Mérini (1999, 2006) who defines the partnership as «the minimum common actions negotiated towards the resolution of a problem or a problematic recognized as mutual».The corpus is constituted from professional papers (report of meeting, pupils' production, project of school, etc.) collected over two years and of semi-managed conversations. For our analysis, only the professional papers were considered. At first, we described and analyzed the nature of health education actions under the angle of the definition of Mérini (2007, 2009) to know that " health education, at school, can conceive as the installation of a series of reports to one, to the others, in the environment, in the past and in the future with the aim of bringing the pupil by opinions reasoned to make choices enlightened in health " and on the other hand, through teachers practices.The results demonstrate that in Quebec, the report to one is the most worked while in France, it is the report in the other one. In Quebec, the actions seem more complex than in France and combine often more than a report. Finally, in Quebec, more health education actions join the promotion of an active lifestyle. Secondly, we were interested in the partnership logics which underlie health education actions under the angle of the networks of opening and collaboration and the resources used to set up and develop these actions. The results show that the school finds its in-house resources and that the network of type 2 is the most frequent. Its stake is the training of the pupils. In France, actions are often subcontracted because the teachers consider the more competent specialists. The outer participants are different: in France, we find especially "préventologues" whereas in Quebec, the school works with parents or associations. [...]
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Caroline Bizzoni-Prévieux. Les partenariats en éducation à la santé à l'école primaire : analyse comparée entre le Québec et la France. Education. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II; Université du Québec à Montréal, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010CLF20018⟩. ⟨tel-00808459⟩



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