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Le développement des sous-populations des neurones producteurs de l'hormone de mélano-concentration reflète un changement de l'organisation précoce du prosencéphale de l'embryon de rongeur

Abstract : Neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are observed in the vertebrate posterior hypothalamus, from lampreys to humans. These neurons are involved in various functions such as sleep/wake cycle or food intake. They form a non-homogeneous population and at least two sub-populations are indentified in the rat. The first sub-population is composed of neurons born on the 11th embryonic day (E11) that project heavily on posterior regions of the central nervous system. The second is characterized by neurons born at E12/E13, projecting in anterior regions of the brain and expressing the peptide CART (cocaine and amphetamine Regulated Transcript) and the NK 3 receptor (neurokinin). The aim of this study was to understand the origin of these two sub-populations. For this, we used histological, molecular and in vitro approaches. MCH neurons are among the first neurons to be born and to differentiate their chemical phenotype along a longitudinal region defined by intense proliferation and called " cell cord " by Keyser in 1972. This longitudinal band is characterized by the expression of genes such as Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Nkx2.1, Nkx2.2 and was recently named " diagonal intrahypothalamica " or ID. Differenciation of MCH neurons depends on expression of the morphogenetic factor Shh and these neurons express Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2, transcription factors upregulated by Shh. The neurons of the first sub-population send projections along the tractus postopticus (tpoc), which is the first longitudinal tract to develop. Neurons of the second sub-population differentiate concomitantly to the development of the basal forebrain and their projections innervate anterior brain regions. Our results obtained in vitro showed that Netrin1 attracts MCH axons and that this reponse is mediated by DCC. Slit2 repulses MCH axons and this reponse is mediated by the Robo2 receptor. Overall, our study of the development of the MCH system shed light on an organizational change in the longitudinal axis of the forebrain during early development : a primary longitudinal organization characterized by the longitudinal expression of Shh and Nkx2.2 and the path of the tractus postopticus in the diencephalon and mesencephalon. MCH neurons of the first sub-population develop during this stage. Then, as the basal telencephalon extends and expresses Netrin1, the medial forebrain bundle differentiates, inducing a change in the main axis of the forebrain ; meanwhile MCH neurons of the second sub-population appear. MCH sub-populations reflect distinct developmental stages of the forebrain.
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Sophie Croizier. Le développement des sous-populations des neurones producteurs de l'hormone de mélano-concentration reflète un changement de l'organisation précoce du prosencéphale de l'embryon de rongeur. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Franche-Comté, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011BESA3015⟩. ⟨tel-00808444⟩

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