Effets du monoxyde d'azote inhalé sur le cerveau en développement chez le raton

Abstract : Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is one of the most promising therapies used in neonates, but littlei known about its effect on the developing brain. We explored the effects of iNO on developing brain in rodent pups, and pathway involved in iNO remote effects. Rat pups and their mothers were placed in a chamber containing 5 to 20 ppm of NO for 7 days after birth. Extensive serum analysis, immunochemistry, RT-PCR analysis, were performed Neonatal exposure to iNO was associated with a transient increase in central nervous system myelination and angiogenesis in rats, without any behavioral consequences in adulthood. Exposure to iNO was associated with a proliferative effect on immature oligodendrocytes and a subsequent promaturational effect. The role of endogenous NO in myelination was investigated in animals treated with the nitric oxides synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the neonatal period ; this led to protracted myelination defects and subsequent behavioral deficits in adulthood. These effects were reversed by rescuing L-NAME-treated animals with iNO. We challenged animals with intracranial injection of glutamate agonists. At P10, rat pups exposed to iNO exhibited a significant decrease of lesion size in both the white matter and cortical plate compared to controls. Microglia activation and astrogliosis were found significantly decreased in NO-exposed animals. This neuroprotective effect was associated with a significantdecrease of several glutamate receptor subunits expression at P5. iNO was associated with an early(P1) downregulation of pCREB/pAkt expression and induced an increase in pAkt proteinconcentration in response to excitotoxic challenge (P7) Those effects were related to a release of NOto the cells, and a rise of cGMP intracellular concentration. Several transcription factor wereregulated, namely PDGFR-α, Sema3F, TSP-1, glutamate receptors subunits, Thrombospondin-1. Thelatter was responsible for NO pathway regulation, and injection of TSP-1 agonist (AbT-510) abolishediNO remote effects. iNO remote effects are not associated VEGF concentration increase nor VEGFRstimulation, as VEGF-R antagonist SU54-16 failed to abolish iNO effects on angiogenesis andmyelination. Moreover iNO reverses severe myelination and angiogenesis defects induced by this SU-5416. Thus, we demonstrate transport and considerable remote effect of iNO on angiogenesis andmyelination in rodents. Those effects are related to an enhancement of cGMP pathway, regulated byTSP-1, and transcriptional effects. Moreover we described and investigated the neuroprotectiveeffect of iNO in neonatal excitotoxic-induced brain damage. These data point to potential newavenues for neuroprotection in human perinatal brain damage.
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Gauthier Loron. Effets du monoxyde d'azote inhalé sur le cerveau en développement chez le raton. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05T068⟩. ⟨tel-00807648⟩

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