Modélisation de maladies neurodégénératives à l’aide de cellules souches pluripotentes induites humaines

Abstract : Reprogramming technology of somatic cells in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) now offers the opportunity to model neurodegenerative diseases and to study patient’s neurons. We used this technology for generating two models of neurodegenerative diseases: the muccopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPSIIIB) and the ALS2 form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the MPSIIIB model, we have shown that iPS and neurons of patients had characteristic defects of the disease such as the accumulation of storage vesicles. Alterations of the Golgi apparatus in these cells were also highlighted. Transcriptome analysis of MPSIIIB neural precursors showed transcriptional changes involving particularly genes implicated in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Thus, in a subsequent study, alterations of migration and orientation of MPSIIIB mutant mouse cells and MPSIIIB patients’ cells have been demonstrated. These alterations may be responsible for the disruption of neurogenesis and neuritogenesis in sick children. In the ALS2 model, we have shown that patients’ neurons had defects including decreased endosomes’ surface and abnormal neurite outgrowth. As there was previously no relevant cellular model reproducing the disease, this model will now allow the study of physiopathological processes involved in the disease. In conclusion, the generation of iPS cells allows to model neurodegenerative diseases and to study associated physiopathological processes on cultured human neurons. These cell models could allow in the near future the screening of molecules of potential therapeutical interest
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Thomas Lemonnier. Modélisation de maladies neurodégénératives à l’aide de cellules souches pluripotentes induites humaines. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05T074⟩. ⟨tel-00806699⟩

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