Etude de la dynamique, des sources et de la spéciation des éléments tracés dans le bassin versant de l’orge (Essonne, France)

Abstract : The aim of this work is to study the dynamics of trace elements (TE) in the water column of the Orge River. In the upstream part of the watershed, land uses consist mainly in forests and agricultural soils, whereas downstream, the population density reaches up to 8,000 inh. km-2, in the suburbs of Paris Megacity. The sampling sites were chosen to describe a gradation in urbanization influence from up to downstream in this particularly contrasted catchment. Four sampling campaigns were performed at seven selected sites along the Orge River during an hydrological year (2010/2011). The spatio-temporal monitoring of the concentrations in the dissolved phase (< 0.45 µm) and in suspended particulate matter (SPM) was associated to isotopic tools (δ34S [SO42-], 206Pb/207Pb) to understand both the dynamics of TE partition and the sources of contamination. Speciation of zinc was investigated as it is the main inorganic contaminant in the Orge River catchment, using X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy coupled to microanalysis, and synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy. Results of geochemical analyses showed that runoff and sewer releases are major sources of contamination in river. Results from isotopic measurements allow to build a hydro-geochemical indicator of anthropogenic pressure in river which considers both physico-chemistry and hydrodynamics, by tracing simultaneously dissolved and particulate compartments. The investigation of zinc speciation permits to identify iron and manganese oxyhydroxydes, calcite, clays and amorphous silica as main bearing phases for this element. Microscopy results confirmed the existence of such phases in river and allowed the identification of secondary zinc bearing phases as sulfides, “surprisingly” present in the oxic water column. At last, this work permitted a better understanding of biogeochemical cycling of TE in urbanized rivers, and to explore new research schemes by coupling speciation and isotopic measurements for specific elements.
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Pierre Le Pape. Etude de la dynamique, des sources et de la spéciation des éléments tracés dans le bassin versant de l’orge (Essonne, France). Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112330⟩. ⟨tel-00806574⟩

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