Empreintes climatiques et anthropiques sur le détritisme holocène : étude multiparamètres et intégrée de systèmes lacustres d'Europe Occidentale

Abstract : The mechanical erosion of continental surfaces, or “detritism”, results from climatic forcing, but can be amplified by the anthropogenic one. Today, soil erosion represents therefore one of the major issue. The present work is thus focused on the interactions linking climate, human impacts and detrism, on Holocene continental environments. Associated with a multiparameter analytical approach, combining the quantification and the modelisation of soil erosion, the integrative study and the comparison of different lacustrines archives from Western Europe provide the following informations. At long time scale, the transition out of the Holocene Thermal Maximum towards the Neoglacial period is defined by the progressive establishment of a wetter climate within Western Europe. In Western French Alps, this is more particularly characterized by an increase of 800 mm per year of the mean annual precipitation. Human presence is first detected throughout the piedmont plain, and is synchronous across the Alps (Neolithic period). Human settlements are regulated by the accessibility, but also by negative climate feedbacks, at least up to the Iron Age. Over the Holocene, soil erosion is thereby mainly controlled by the climate but is also influenced by the human activities wihtin the piedmont plain, since the Neolithic period. This anthropogenic pressure explains up to 50% of the soil erosion quantified into the lacustrine archives from the French Prealps. It is more particularly important during the Bronze Age, the Iron Age and the modern period.
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Anaëlle Simonneau. Empreintes climatiques et anthropiques sur le détritisme holocène : étude multiparamètres et intégrée de systèmes lacustres d'Europe Occidentale. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ORLE2046⟩. ⟨tel-00805471⟩

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