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Structures poreuses tridimensionnelles de biopolymères pour l'ingénierie tissulaire

Abstract : Functional three-dimensional porous scaffolds possess a high potential in many biomedical applications. We have thus oriented our work toward the elaboration of new materials able to meet several criteria for bone tissue engineering. Due to their renewability, their biocompatibility, and their biodegradability, poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) exhibit properties particularly suitable for this type of application. First, we have developed novel controlled strategies that are rapid and straightforward for the synthesis of PHA-based block copolymers as well as for the production of oligoesters upon microwave activation. Moreover, the absence of “non-thermal” microwave effect in the ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide was also demonstrated through a systematic investigation. Second, the elaboration of miscellaneous three-dimensional nanofibrous materials by electrospinning has been performed to produce PHA-based frameworks with different morphologies through the formation of fibers in a wide range of diameters or with controlled surface topography (nanopores or channels). Several strategies for surface functionalization have also been implemented, such as the deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by an original combination of the electrospinning and electrospraying techniques or by the co-electrospinning of gelatin. New approaches toward covalent coupling of molecules on the PHA fiber surface by “click” chemistry or by ring-opening of previously introduced epoxide groups have also been developed. Lastly, in-vitro biological investigations have highlighted the potential of these new nanofibrous materials as cell culture supports through the evaluation of the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of pluripotent human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) toward an osteoblastic phenotype
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Julien Ramier. Structures poreuses tridimensionnelles de biopolymères pour l'ingénierie tissulaire. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1159⟩. ⟨tel-00805370⟩

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