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Système de diffusion d'information pour encourager les PME-PMI à améliorer leurs performances environnementales

Abstract : Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are the cornerstone of the French economy and job creation. However, due to financial and resource constraints, they are not inclined to look for environmental information autonomously. As a result, they often consider environmental issues as a constraint rather than a potential benefit. SMEs generally invest neither time nor money in order to reduce the environmental impacts of their activities and thus remain in an "inactivity cycle". Their global environmental impact cannot be neglected which makes their interested parties more and more concerned. The aim of this study is to analyse the environmental information system of SMEs in order to identify scope for potential improvements. The first hypothesis of this study is that SMEs do not have the knowledge that is necessary in order to implement a "rational" pollution prevention policy. It is also assumed that access to environmental information is necessary for the SME to reduce the environmental impact of its activities. In order to validate these hypotheses and to identify which information channels contribute to the reduction of environmental impacts, a method is proposed to simultaneously evaluate the environmental policies of the SME and its ability to access to environmental information. This approach has been used to survey 47 SMEs. In addition, more than 300 pieces of information that were given to companies by two industrial associations were analysed. These data were analysed using principal component analysis, multiple correspondence analysis and chi square tests on contingency tables. The survey shows that SMEs favour direct contact with various organisations. The more a company is open to partners, the more it prevents pollution. Each SME has a different "partnership profile" according to the area where it is situated, its level of independence, its status according to environmental legislation and its situation with respect to quality standards. Most of the surveyed companies do not conform to the environmental legislation. Six criteria have been determined to have a significant impact on the level of pollution prevention: the company's status according to environmental legislation, the presence of an environmental manager, the type of motivation of its manager and its situation with respect to quality standards. A set of 15 indicators was employed to evaluate the environmental behaviour of the SME. The analysis of the information that had been given to firms by environmental experts led to a classification of environmental information into four categories: its type (about the environment, about the pollution prevention, organisations that are involved in environmental protection, events and references), its theme and its decisional and geographical levels. A model of how to use environmental information is proposed for SMEs. It is based on the metasystem model that is proposed by J. VAN GIGCH. This model can be used to diagnose the dysfunction of the environmental information system of a SME. To stimulate pollution prevention amongst SMEs, it would seem necessary to favour partnerships between public and private organisations through the implementation of projects that aim to help SMEs to improve their environmental performances. Thus, local partners can distribute environmental information by direct contact with the SMEs. In order to help in the organisation of such projects, a methodological guide is proposed.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 26, 2013 - 3:42:50 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, December 2, 2020 - 8:48:05 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, June 27, 2013 - 4:04:02 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00804929, version 1

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Natacha Gondran. Système de diffusion d'information pour encourager les PME-PMI à améliorer leurs performances environnementales. Sciences de l'environnement. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne; INSA de Lyon, 2001. Français. ⟨NNT : 2001ISAL0088⟩. ⟨tel-00804929⟩

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