Abstract : The project of a "general system theory" was advanced from 1937 onwards by the Austrian philosopher and biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972). A history of this project is undertaken in this thesis, which describes this "theory" as a general science of systemic interpretation of "real", or "general systemology". The genealogical inquiry reveals the sources of the values and conceptual schemes which structured the Bertalanffian project, as well as of the initial enquiries from which it originated. The intellectual dynamics which determined, to a large extent, its genesis are then considered in focusing on von Bertalanffy's "perspectivist" theory of knowledge, on its consequences for his philosophy of science and for his system concept, and on his numerous contributions to theoretical biology (particularly to mathematical biology). The first publications on "general systemology" are analyzed. The thesis also accounts for the rapid change of the latter in a collective project in the mid 1950'-s. It gave rise to the founding in the U.S.A. of the Society for General Systems Research, on which the diverse components of a "system movement" converged. The difficulties of the proponents of "general systemology" to engender its actualization within this scientific society are demonstrated. But it is also shown that this project has benefited from significant contributions as recently as the 1970'-s. A systematic framework is put forward, which establishes the complementarity and the unity of such approaches, while clarifying the structure and functions of what is termed in this thesis as "systemological hermeneutics".