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Les logiciels de visualisation moléculaire dans l’enseignement des sciences de la vie : conceptions et usages

Abstract : The initial question of this thesis focuses, from a curriculum questioning point of view, on the use of molecular visualization (MV) software in the teaching of “sciences de la vie et de la Terre” (SVT) in France which are the equivalent of biology and geology. The achievement of a literature review about teaching using the MV made it clear that MV software can help this teaching. However, we did not find any study focusing on the uses of MV software in education. We developed a composite methodology relying on curricular issues (Martinand, 2000) to get a better understanding of the uses of VM software. We apprehended the prescribed curriculum through the analysis of official programs since the early 1990s, the analysis of baccalaureate subjects and analysis of reports of competitives examinations to be a teacher (agrégation and CAPES). We inferred the potential curriculum through the study of textbooks, academic training, academic sites, the "traces" found on the web and interviews with teachers. We inferred the curriculum co-produced through classroom observations and interviews with teachers. Finally, we conducted an interview with an actor who played a major part in the introduction of these software to understand better the processes involved in the use of these software. We got to the conclusion that there seems to be a "saturation" of the use of these software. It results in a use with little change in the last ten years that consists of a use for one or two practical works per year for each class of the high school. Activities that use these software seem to be very guided (protocol) and appear to put very little emphasis on the molecular aspect of molecular representations, instead simply give to see these representations. While originally, these programs have been introduced to bring scientific practices in the classroom, we may question this saturation. To determine if this was the case with other software in biology, we studied their use in using the methodology previously used. Thus, it appears that the use of these software, such as MV software seems restricted to one or two sessions a year through activities that seem quite formal (very guided). Finally, we noted a contrast between the declared will to incorporate ICT in education and a use we inferred where this practice seems at odds with the expectations of the program. We also considered the possibility of thinking of new activities through scientific practices of reference in relation to the MV. In order to do this, we analyzed scientific articles, conducted interviews with researchers and completed an internship for 3 weeks in a laboratory. It appears that it would seem preferable to focus in high school on activities to acquire the fundamentals concerning the MV and rather consider investigative activities for the beginning of the university.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00802668, version 1

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Stanislas Dorey. Les logiciels de visualisation moléculaire dans l’enseignement des sciences de la vie : conceptions et usages. Education. École normale supérieure de Cachan - ENS Cachan, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012DENS0056⟩. ⟨tel-00802668⟩

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