Etude biochimique d’un cytochrome P450 de cerveau humain : le CYP2U1

Abstract : Among the 57 human cytochrome P450 genes that have been identified; substrates, structure and physiologic role of 15 of them is practically unknown. They are called orphan. One of them, CYP2U1 is one of the most expressed cytochrome P450 in the brain and in the cerebellum but also one of the most conserved isoform in the all animal kingdom. This manuscript first describes the optimization of the heterologous expression of an active form of CYP2U1. Expression in a eukaryotic host, yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae first allows the production of a catalytic active CYP2U1-P450 reductase complex needed for substrate screening. Another expression system in a prokaryote host Escherichia Coli will allow higher production rate of a truncated and soluble form of the protein which will permit structural studies. Then a directed substrate screening was performed with the liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis of CYP2U1 incubations. To date, 70 molecules, CYP2 family substrates, were tested that allow the identification of the two first exogenous CYP2U1 substrates: débrisoquine and terfenadone analogs. A structural study was achieved using a homology tridimensional model of the enzyme. We have found that CYP2U1 is longer than the other human CYPs, with an N-terminal 20 amino acids insertion, located after the  helical membrane spanning domain. Structural models were built using six crystallized human CYP2s as templates. Molecular dynamics experiments in membrane suggested a specific interaction with the membrane. The active site topology and the access channels were also determined and a docking of the two first exogenous CYP2U1 substrates was performed in order to confirm the regioselective hydroxylation activities observed in vitro.
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Lionel Ducassou. Etude biochimique d’un cytochrome P450 de cerveau humain : le CYP2U1. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P642⟩. ⟨tel-00799083⟩

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