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Diversité des branches évolutives basales du règne des champignons dans les écosystèmes hydrothermaux marins profonds

Abstract : Fungi are ubiquitous heterotrophs that play pivotal roles in numerous ecosystems (e.g. decomposers, symbionts) and form one of the major eukaryotic lineages. Among them the Chytridiomycota phylum constitutes the early diverging branches of the fungal kingdom and so can give critical informations for the understanding of the fungal evolutionary radiation. However, this group has been overlooked and consequently the roots of the fungal kingdom remain poorly resolved. Here, we describe the fungal diversity with a special interest in Chytridiomycota, via environmental genomic analyses. Different kinds of samples were collected at deep-sea hydrothermal vents which are generally considered as hotspots of diversity harbouring endemic organisms and also encompassing novel fungal lineages. To process the data collected, we developed an online user-friendly database, called PHYMYCO-DB, containing quality-checked molecular markers dedicated to fungal phylogenetic studies. The molecular experimental tools designed here allowed the description of six phylotypes belonging to Chytridiomycota, four of them producing branches never described before. Also, unexpectedly, the diversity retrieved goes beyond the Opisthokonta clade boundaries (i.e. Animals, Fungi ...) as one phylotype of Apusozoa and two phylotypes of very diverging eukaryotes with undefined positions anterior to the known Unikonta, were obtained. These results offer perspectives for the description of new organisms via genome sequencing or imaging, but also they are promising for the resolution of the complex deep evolutionary relationships in Opisthokonta, Unikonta and Bikonta.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00797898, version 1

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Stéphane Mahé. Diversité des branches évolutives basales du règne des champignons dans les écosystèmes hydrothermaux marins profonds. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université Rennes 1, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00797898⟩

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