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Évaluation de la toxicité de pesticides sur quatre niveaux trophiques marins : microalgues, échinoderme, bivalves et poisson

Abstract : This work aims to study the effects of a few pesticides and one adjuvant on marine organisms, representatives of four trophic levels : micro-algae, echinoderm, bivalves and fish. Analysis of the pollu-sensitivity was based on the utilisation of existing bio-assays or adapted to this study.Phytotoxic assessments were conducted on three phytoplanktonic species (Chaetoceros calcitrans, Isochrysis aff. Galbana et Tetraselmis suecica) using the fungicide epoxiconazole and the adjuvant nonylphenol. Sensitivity to these toxicants of C. calcitrans and I. aff. Galbana was high. Thus, when C. calcitrans was grown in a medium simulating pre-winter conditions in Gabès Gulf, EC50 values were respectively, 2.31 mg/L and 2.9 μg/L for epoxiconazole active ingredient and epoxiconazole-formulated. These results questioned the use of ecotoxicological data obtained solely using active molecules of pesticides rather the complete formulation and show that non-target micro-algae may be affected by a triazole fungicide.Moreover, cell age, light and nutrient composition induced changes in epoxiconazole sensitivity, suggesting that cellular density is an important parameter in toxicity tests.Analysis of a few physiological parameters show that contaminants used in this study induce an increase of pigment content, ATP synthesis, and rates of oxygen exchanges while the cell volume enlarges. Consequently, the toxicants might reduce the growth rate, by a prolongation of the cell cycle without affecting the production of new material for the construction of new cells.Bioassays were conducted using microcosms during a bloom of the toxic algae Karenia selliformis in the Gulf of Gabès. The different toxicants (epoxiconazole, chlorpyrifos-éthyl, nonyphenol) produced drastic changes in the phytoplankton communities, depending on the type and concentration of the contaminant.Phytotoxic assessments were conducted on marine animal models, using different developmental stages: embryo-larval development (sea urchin, oyster, and clam), metamorphosis larvae (clam) and larvae survival (turbot). Results show that turbot larvae are most sensitive to the action of contaminants with EC50 values ranging from 2.78 to 492 μg/L depending on the toxic and that the metamorphosis is the stage the most sensitive of the three stages of development of clam studied.The pollutants produced developmental and embryonic abnormalities that might induce a reduction in the natural production by acting i) directly on the development of the marine organisms and ii) indirectly on the quality and bioavailability of food through the variation of phytoplankton biomass.These results underline the need to study pollutant effects on marine organisms having different organizations to evaluate their full impact.
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Anis Amara. Évaluation de la toxicité de pesticides sur quatre niveaux trophiques marins : microalgues, échinoderme, bivalves et poisson. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012BRES0013⟩. ⟨tel-00795396⟩

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