Rôle de la tarification de l'activité des établissements de santé dans l'accès des patients aux traitements anticancéreux oraux : exemple du cancer du sein métastatique HER2+

Abstract : Since the early 2000’s, oral anticancer drugs (OADs) are increasingly available especially for the treatment of breast cancer. This route of chemotherapy administration allows patients to take oral tablets at home improving their quality-of-life. We estimate that 10 to 34% of breast tumors over-express the HER2 protein (HER2+) that increases the risk of developing metastasis. Two anti-HER2 targeted therapies are currently available: trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody administered intravenously and lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor administered orally. According to the recommendations of the National Agency for Accreditation and Evaluation in Health (ANAES, 2003), OADs should be administered when their efficacy is equivalent to the one of intravenous forms taken at hospital. In the current practice of oncologists, OADs seem to be underused in some cases. The medical brakes to the use of OADs (i.e. adherence, management of side effects) are well known. Nonetheless, OADs induce additional hospital healthcare resources which are not taken into account in the hospital payment system that is based on the nature and the quantity of medical activities performed (i.e. per-case payment system (PPS)). We assume that the current model of PPS represents an economic barrier to the use of OADs and which induces a disparity of access between oral and intravenous cancer treatments. The objective of this thesis was to determine the role of the PPS on the patient access to OADs based on a medico-economic evaluation of the economical and organizational impacts of OADs on the health care system. A literature review has highlighted the role of the funding of care on the access to OADs in the French and US healthcare systems. From an analysis of the national hospital database (PMSI database), we have quantified the economic implications of chemotherapy administration that is the second hospital activity in volume after hemodialysis. Earnings associated with chemotherapy sessions have been estimated at 108 million Euros in 2010 for all private and public institutions in France. This analysis also allowed us to simulate the transfer of resources allocation from hospital to community setting induced by the substitution of chemotherapy sessions by the use of OADs. A model comparing the cost of intravenous anticancer drug (trastuzumab) to OADs (lapatinib and capecitabine) in the treatment of HER2+ metastatic breast cancer confirmed the lower costs for OADs (€ 17,165 versus € 36,077 per year per patient). The higher acquisition cost of OADs was offset by the cost savings in terms of medical transportation and hospital resources. Despite this negative budget impact for hospitals, a preference study (Discrete Choice Experiment) conducted among 203 physicians showed that the efficacy of cancer treatment remained the main determinant of the therapeutic decision (β=2.214, p<0.0001). The study has also revealed that, in the advanced stages of cancer, the route of administration and its associated cost was also associated with the treatment choice (β=0.612, p= 0.035; =β0.506, p<0.0001). Overall, the results show that the hospital payment system influences the choice of treatment modalities. Nonetheless, medical criterions related to the patient remain essential in the choice of using OADs (clinical profile of the patient, adherence, patient preferences, familial and socio-economic environment, and conditions of access to health care)
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Laure Benjamin. Rôle de la tarification de l'activité des établissements de santé dans l'accès des patients aux traitements anticancéreux oraux : exemple du cancer du sein métastatique HER2+. Economies et finances. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05S011⟩. ⟨tel-00790326⟩

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