ÉTUDE DES CIRCULATIONS D'EAUX SOUTERRAINES EN AQUIFÈRE KARSTIQUE CÔTIER : OBSERVATIONS ET MODÉLISATION DE LA SOURCE SAUMÂTRE ALMYROS D'HÉRAKLION, CRÈTE (GRÈCE)

Abstract : This Ph.D studies the seawater intrusion in heterogeneous coastal karstic aquifers where local modifications of the saltwater encroachment beneath the freshwater in the aquifer occurs, due to the flow of fresh water through the specific pathways of the karst. The vast coastal karstic system of the Almyros spring of Heraklion (Crete), characterized by an inland brackish karstic spring with a salinity inversely proportional to the discharge, is chosen to illustrate the mixing conditions of seawater and fresh-water within the aquifer. For two years, the electric conductivity, the temperature, the water level and the flow rate at the Almyros spring of Heraklion, just as the climatic data, have been continuously recorded. A general functioning scheme and the salinization mechanism of the Almyros spring have been established. A new numerical model SWIKAC (Salt-Water Intrusion in Karst Conduits) has been developed. It is based on a simple concept of the aquifer, reduced to a circular conduit supplying the spring surrounded by an equivalent continuous medium (matrix) where saltwater flows. The spring salinity depends on the conduit-matrix exchange rate, and on the distance of the seawater intrusion within the conduit. While exceptional floods for a few days or for about fifty days, depending on the year, the sea-water intrusion in the karst conduit is blocked leading to fresh water at the spring and giving great hopes of using once this potential drinking water resources.
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Bruno Arfib. ÉTUDE DES CIRCULATIONS D'EAUX SOUTERRAINES EN AQUIFÈRE KARSTIQUE CÔTIER : OBSERVATIONS ET MODÉLISATION DE LA SOURCE SAUMÂTRE ALMYROS D'HÉRAKLION, CRÈTE (GRÈCE). Sciences de l'environnement. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2001. Français. ⟨tel-00789231⟩

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