Perfectionnement des algorithmes d'optimisation par essaim particulaire : applications en segmentation d'images et en électronique

Abstract : The successful resolution of a difficult optimization problem, comprising a large number of sub optimal solutions, often justifies the use of powerful metaheuristics. A wide range of algorithms used to solve these combinatorial problems belong to the class of population metaheuristics. Among them, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), appeared in 1995, is inspired by the movement of individuals in a swarm, like a bee swarm, a bird flock or a fish school. The particles of the same swarm communicate with each other to build a solution to the given problem. This is done by relying on their collective experience. This algorithm, which is easy to understand and implement, is particularly effective for optimization problems with continuous variables. However, like several metaheuristics, PSO shows some drawbacks that make some users avoid it. The premature convergence problem, where the algorithm converges to some local optima and does not progress anymore in order to find better solutions, is one of them. This thesis aims at proposing alternative methods, that can be incorporated in PSO to overcome these problems, and to improve the performance and the efficiency of PSO. We propose two algorithms, called PSO-2S and DEPSO-2S, to cope with the premature convergence problem. Both algorithms use innovative ideas and are characterized by new initialization strategies in several areas to ensure good coverage of the search space by particles. To improve the PSO algorithm, we have also developed a new neighborhood topology, called Dcluster, which can be seen as the communication network between the particles. The obtained experimental results for some benchmark cases show the effectiveness of the strategies implemented in the proposed algorithms. Finally, PSO-2S is applied to real world problems in both image segmentation and electronics fields
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Abbas El Dor. Perfectionnement des algorithmes d'optimisation par essaim particulaire : applications en segmentation d'images et en électronique. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1074⟩. ⟨tel-00788961⟩



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