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Optimisation des engins de pêche en terme d'économie de carburant

Abstract : Nowadays, fishing industry is facing several constraints such as increased fuel prices and declining fish stocks. In this work, we perform optimization of fishing trawls (pelagic and bottom) in order to improve their energy efficiencies. Two main factors were used: the trawl drag and its mouth swept area. Our work focuses on optimizing trawl design by altering mesh numbers and changing cable length. We have developed a method called SOT and compared it to a random search method in the pelagic trawl case with a net energy gain of 54%. The SOT was used in design optimization of bottom trawl panels. Improved energy gain of 38% was obtained and a reduction of 45 total number of fishing days. In order to bypass catchability reduction, we developed an objective function which depends on fish distribution. Three functions with same bottom surface density were tested. Improving energy efficiency calculated by the SOT method on a bottom trawl is respectively 52%, 16% and 32% for the three distributions. With the SRT method (sequential refinement), we obtain reductions of 56%, 30% and 39% for the three aforementioned distributions. Finally we adapted the SOT method to optimize trawl cable lengths. In one case, we obtain energy efficiency improved by 49%. The usefulness of this work should be extended beyond fishery to ecology in general.
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Ramez Khaled. Optimisation des engins de pêche en terme d'économie de carburant. Autre. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012BRES0011⟩. ⟨tel-00788335⟩

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