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Durabilité des géomembranes en polyéthylène haute densité utilisées dans les installations de stockage de déchets non dangereux

Abstract : High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) geomembranes (GMB) are used as basal liners in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. In spite of the good initial properties of the HDPE, his durability remains poorly known face to the chemical and biological strains of the MSW landfill leachate and the thermal and mechanical strains generated by the solid waste. The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the development of a non-empirical kinetic model for predicting HDPE GMB life cycle, that simultaneously takes into accounts the chemical and biological aging effects. For this purpose, we seek to determine on the one hand the extraction process parameters of the antioxidants present in the GMB, first step of the GMB aging, and on the other hand the kinetic parameters of the PE thermo-oxidation, second step of the GMB aging. This requires knowing and understanding the physico-chemical mechanisms involved in the PE aging in the particular conditions of MSW landfills. Using a multi-scale methodology (macro-micro) and multi-technique approach (FTIR; GPC-HT, DSC, tensile tests, …), we assess the impact of the accelerated aging on the chemical composition, on the macromolecular and crystalline structures and on the used properties of HDPE GMB and films. This study identified a relevant endlife criterion for assessing the GMB service lifetime: the embrittlement which corresponds to a critical molecular mass M'C of about 100 kg.mol-1. Coupling chemical oxidative degradation modelling of the polymer and biofilm growth kinetic modelling is proposed. In the last part, the same type of multi-scale approach has been applied to characterize the degradation of HDPE GMB aged 18 years in water storage basin in order to determine the mechanisms involved in natural aging
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Carlota Pons. Durabilité des géomembranes en polyéthylène haute densité utilisées dans les installations de stockage de déchets non dangereux. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1157⟩. ⟨tel-00787951⟩

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