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Socialisations de genre, identité sexuée et expérience scolaire : dynamiques d'acculturation et de personnalisation chez le jeune enfant scolarisé en grande section de maternelle

Abstract : The main objective of our research is to account for the psychosocial mechanism by which children, aged 5-6 years and who attend to nursery school, progressively differentiate themselves as boys and girls and fit into gender school development. In reference to a conception of socialization which distinguishes a side of acculturation and a side of personalization (Malrieu & Malrieu, 1973), our hypothesis is the following : Gender identity mediates the influence of family and school gender socialization on the construction of school experience, because of the degree of stereotypy and the degree of heterogeneity of these socialization backgrounds and of the developmental step of the children. In order to test this hypotesis, we choose a methodology centered on the point of view of all the subjects concerned (adults and children). We proposed a questionnaire on several dimensions of gender socialization to the adults (fathers and mothers of 61 children attended nursery school, theirs teachers and their “A.T.S.E.M”. Child’s gender identity was examined with the P.S.A.I; (Golombok & Rust, 1993), the B.S.R.I. adapted by Tostain (1993) and the test of gender constancy (Dafflon Novelle, 2010).School experience was examined with a semi-directive interview.The main results highlight three types of school experience: “conform”, “agonistic” and “epistemic”. If school gender socialization, with the transmission of educational values, influences children’s school experience, family gender socialization influences the construction of gender identity. Some links appear between children’s gender identity and their school experience. Although the analyses don’t permit to establish the mediator role of gender identity, the results as a whole confirm the pertinence to adopt a theoretical model of a plural and conflicting socialization which examines the links between the processes of acculturation and personalization in the study of the construction of the girls and boys school development from the early age. Within this model, the consideration of child’s gender identity allows to better understand in the construction of his/her school experience.
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Yoan Mieyaa. Socialisations de genre, identité sexuée et expérience scolaire : dynamiques d'acculturation et de personnalisation chez le jeune enfant scolarisé en grande section de maternelle. Psychologie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012TOU20112⟩. ⟨tel-00784533⟩

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