Rôle des microorganismes des nuages dans la chimie atmosphérique. Comparaison avec la chimie radicalaire

Abstract : Clouds are multiphasic atmospheric systems in which the dissolved organic compounds, such as carboxylic acids, are subject to multiple chemical transformations in the aqueous phase. We investigated to which extent the active biomass (bacteria, yeasts and fungi) existing incloud water represents an alternative route to the chemical reactivity of organic compounds. Microbial analysis of cloud water sampled at the puy de Dôme Mountain (1465 m.a.s.l;France) has been performed between 2003 and 2010. In average, the total microbial cells content in cloud water was 1×105 cells mL-1 for bacteria, and 1×104 cells mL-1 for fungi and yeasts. The ATP cell concentration values measured in cloud water samples prove the existence of a metabolic activity into cloud droplets. To study the biocatalytic influence of viable microorganisms on organic compounds in cloud water, artificial and natural cloud water solutions were incubated in presence of cultivable cells in the dark or under UV irradiation (with and without H2O2 addition). Contribution of biocatalytic and photo-induced processes (via •OH radicals production) over transformation of methanol, formaldehyde and the main carboxylic acids present in cloud water (acetate,formate, oxalate, succinate and malonate) were determined from these experiments. Bio- and photo-transformation rates of these organic compounds obtained in our experimental conditions are in the same range of order (except for oxalate). Microorganisms present in the natural cloud samples are not damaged or metabolically inactivated by the acidity of the cloud water, and by the presence of UV radiation and •OH radicals. H2O2 present in the natural cloud water samples was also biodegraded during the incubation-time by the endogenous microflora. This study shows that microorganisms could affect the carbon budget, but also the oxidative capacity of the cloud aqueous phase and consequently could influence the atmospheric chemistry.
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Mickaël Vaïtilingom. Rôle des microorganismes des nuages dans la chimie atmosphérique. Comparaison avec la chimie radicalaire. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CLF22124⟩. ⟨tel-00783928⟩

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