Abstract : This manuscript reviews contributions to the development of systematic methods for analysis and control of periodic uncertain systems. An important part of this thesis is also dedicated to the design of attitude control systems for satellites whose dynamics is naturally represented as a periodic model subject to uncertainties. The first part is devoted to the developpement of a unifying presentation of the analysis and synthesis results of periodic, uncertain and discrete-time models via methods relying on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and based on Lyapunov theory. Subsequently, the focus is on a new class of periodic control laws with memory for which the control input is constructed using history of the states of the system kept in memory. Numerical experiments show that these new degrees of freedom can outperformed the existing results. The second part deals with periodic and robustness aspects of attitude control of a satellite using magnetorquers. These actuators use the geomagnetic field that varies periodically along the orbital trajectory. Different control strategies are implemented and compared with one another with the constant concern of taking the main limitations of the actuators into account. This approach leads to a new control law regulating the momentum of the reaction wheels without disturbing attitude control for which the control effort is shared by all actuators.