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Développement, caractérisation et modélisation d’interfaces pour cellules solaires à haut rendement à base d’hétérojonctions de silicium

Abstract : The interface between amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) is the building block of high efficiency solar cells based on low temperature fabrication processes. Three properties of the interface determine the performance of silicon heterojunction solar cells: band offsets between a-Si:H and c-Si, interface defects and band bending in c-Si. These three points are addressed in this thesis.First, an analytical model for the calculation of the band bending in c-Si is developed. It assumes a constant density of states (DOS) in the a-Si:H band gap. The influence of most parameters of the structure on the band bending is studied: band offsets, DOS in a-Si:H, interface defects, etc. The presence of quantum confinement at the interface is discussed. Analytical calculations and temperature dependent planar conductance measurements are compared such that the band offsets on both (p)a-Si:H/(n)c-Si and (n)a-Si:H/(p)c-Si can be estimated: the valence band offset amounts 0.36 eV while the conduction band offset is 0.15 eV. In addition, it is shown that the valence band offset is independent of temperature whereas the conduction band offset follows the evolutions of c-Si and a-Si:H band gaps with temperature. A discussion of these results in the frame of the branch point theory for band line-up leads to the conclusion that the branch point in a-Si:H is independent of the doping.Then, analytical calculations are developed further to take into account the real solar cell structure where the a-Si:H/c-Si structure is in contact with a transparent conductive oxide and an undoped buffer layer is present at the interface. Measurements of the planar conductance and of the interface passivation quality are interpreted in the light of analytical calculations and numerical simulations to open a way towards a method for the optimization of silicon heterojunction solar cells. It is particularly shown that a trade-off has to be found between a good passivation quality and a significant band bending. This can be realized by tuning the buffer layer properties (thickness, doping), the TCO-contact (high work function) and the emitter (defect density and thickness). Interestingly, an emitter with a high DOS leads to better cell performances.Finally, a new type of interface has been developed, that was not applied to heterojunction solar cells so far. The c-Si surface has been oxidized in deionized water at 80 °C before the (p)a-Si:H emitter deposition such that (p)a-Si:H/SiO2/(n)c-Si structures were obtained. A tunneling current model has been developed, implemented in the 1D numerical device simulator AFORS-HET and used to study the effect of a wide band gap interfacial layer (as it is the case for SiO2) on cell performance: the fill-factor and the short-circuit current are dramatically reduced for thick and high barriers. However, a SiO2 layer has only little impact on optical properties. Fabricated samples show a passivation quality halfway between samples with no buffer layer and with an (i)a-Si:H buffer layer: this is explained by the presence of a negative fixed charge in the oxide. The band bending in (n)c-Si is higher with an oxide layer than with an (i)a-Si:H buffer layer. Solar cells demonstrate that this new concept has the potential to achieve high power conversion efficiencies: for non-optimized structures, an open-circuit voltage higher than 650 mV has been demonstrated, while the oxide does not seem to create a barrier to charge transport.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00781937
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Submitted on : Monday, January 28, 2013 - 4:32:14 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00781937, version 1

Citation

Renaud Varache. Développement, caractérisation et modélisation d’interfaces pour cellules solaires à haut rendement à base d’hétérojonctions de silicium. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI; Technische Universität (Berlin), 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112279⟩. ⟨tel-00781937⟩

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