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Contribution à la conception d'architecture de calcul auto-adaptative intégrant des nanocomposants neuromorphiques et applications potentielles

Abstract : In this thesis, we study the potential applications of emerging memory nano-devices in computing architecture. More precisely, we show that neuro-inspired architectural paradigms could provide the efficiency and adaptability required in some complex image/audio processing and classification applications. This, at a much lower cost in terms of power consumption and silicon area than current Von Neumann-derived architectures, thanks to a synaptic-like usage of these memory nano-devices. This work is focusing on memristive nano-devices, recently (re-)introduced by the discovery of the memristor in 2008 and their use as synapses in spiking neural network. In fact, this includes most of the emerging memory technologies: Phase-Change Memory (PCM), Conductive-Bridging RAM (CBRAM), Resistive RAM (RRAM)... These devices are particularly suitable for the implementation of natural unsupervised learning algorithms like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP), requiring very little control circuitry.The integration of memristive devices in crossbar array could provide the huge density required by this type of architecture (several thousand synapses per neuron), which is impossible to match with a CMOS-only implementation. This can be seen as one of the main factors that hindered the rise of CMOS-based neural network computing architectures in the nineties, among the relative complexity and inefficiency of the back-propagation learning algorithm, despite all the promising aspects of such neuro-inspired architectures, like adaptability and fault-tolerance. In this work, we propose synaptic models for memristive devices and simulation methodologies for architectural design exploiting them. Novel neuro-inspired architectures are introduced and simulated for natural data processing. They exploit the synaptic characteristics of memristives nano-devices, along with the latest progresses in neurosciences. Finally, we propose hardware implementations for several device types. We assess their scalability and power efficiency potential, and their robustness to variability and faults, which are unavoidable at the nanometric scale of these devices. This last point is of prime importance, as it constitutes today the main difficulty for the integration of these emerging technologies in digital memories.
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Olivier Bichler. Contribution à la conception d'architecture de calcul auto-adaptative intégrant des nanocomposants neuromorphiques et applications potentielles. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112289⟩. ⟨tel-00781811v2⟩

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